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LED Outdoor Luminaires Redefined

The LEDVANCE Floodlight family comprises seven luminaires in five wattages (20/50/100/150/200 W) and two light colors (3,000/4,000 Kelvin), achieving a luminous flux of up to 20 000 lumen and a luminous efficacy of up to 100 lumen per watt (operating temperature from –20 °C to +50 °C). They are waterproof (IP65) and have a shock resistance of IK07 (20/50 W) or IK08 (100/150/200 W). These LED outdoor luminaires have a glass cover and a housing made of aluminum (100/150/200 W) or plastic (PC; 20/50 W). They come with a guarantee of up to five years.

Special benefits

  • Replacement for floodlight luminaires with halogen lamps (up to 1,500 W)
  • Energy savings up to 90 % compared to luminaire with traditional technologies
  • Very homogenous light
  • Tempered glass cover to reduce glare
  • Compact design: weight and size optimized

Recommended applications

  • Residential areas and courtyards
  • Building facades and security
  • Parking lots

Source: leadingarchitecture

Green means go for Hotel Verde and Datacentrix

High performing and secure ICT solution provider, Datacentrix, has been helping keep the lights on (and off) – literally – at Hotel Verde, South Africa’s greenest hotel and the first hotel in Africa to offer carbon-neutral accommodation and conferencing.

Hotel Verde was built to be as sustainable as possible from the ground up. This includes energy-efficient LEDs used for lighting throughout the hotel, with a number of controls helping reduce the energy they consume, such as motion sensors in all public areas that activate the lights and switch them off after 15 minutes if there’s no further movement. The hotel also uses light level sensors, which measure the amount of light that’s available – including natural light from windows and skylights – and dims or brightens the output of the lights to ensure only the required amount of light is given out at any time.

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Appointed to roll-out a number of systems prior to the official opening of the energy and water-efficient hotel two years ago, Datacentrix initially implemented the lighting control system, together with biometric access control, building and property management systems, video conferencing facilities, an audio and video system, room management software, and a video surveillance solution and storage.

The company also put into operation a structured cabling infrastructure (including telephone, BMS cabling and Ethernet, which enables guests to view a dedicated television channel that displays the hotel’s most updated energy and water consumption statistics, as well as its waste management), a managed power over Ethernet (POE) local area network (LAN), firewalls, fibre Internet connectivity, telephone and WiFi systems, and a staff time-and-attendance solution.

Besides this, Datacentrix still interfaces with a number of the third party solution providers as part of its multiyear outsourcing agreement with Hotel Verde. “We are currently in full swing in terms of the maintenance side of our project,” explains Hotel Verde operations manager, Philippe Marechal. “Datacentrix provides us with managed services to maintain hardware, such as our network equipment, desktops and printers, and also assists with maintaining other systems, for example, our telephone solution, acting as a single point of contact for Hotel Verde.

“Datacentrix has a good understanding of the hospitality industry and its specific needs, having worked with several local hotel groups,” says Marechal. “It was the obvious choice when it came to appointing an IT infrastructure and services partner, working very closely with Hotel Verde when it came to setting up our facilities from scratch, and still assisting with the management of our other service providers.”

Aside from its experience within the hospitality sector, Datacentrix also met Hotel Verde’s non-negotiable service provider criterion of being located within a maximum of 160 kilometres from the hotel, as part of its carbon-offsetting programme, which complements the hotel’s other green initiatives. “Not only does Hotel Verde offer guests and conference delegates a carbon-neutral stay at the hotel by offsetting carbon emissions through responsible carbon capturing and reduction projects, we also believe in responsible procurement.

“This means that our suppliers are chosen based on the sustainability of their own practices and their proximity to the hotel. To reduce the carbon impact of transportation, all suppliers used by Hotel Verde must be based within a 160km radius,” he adds.

Hotel Verde is the first hotel in Africa to achieve the Platinum LEED certification level, as assigned by the United States Green Building Council. In addition, it was the recipient of the Imvelo Award 2014 by Lilizela for Best Overall Environmental Management System, and won the World Responsible Tourism Award 2014 by World Travel Market, London for Best City Hotel.

“It has been a real honour for Datacentrix to be involved in the establishment of this exceptional, sustainably operated business,” says Juane Peacock, managing director: coastal regions and Enterprise Information Management (EIM) at Datacentrix. “One of our strategic imperatives involves building long-term partnerships with customers, which enables an intimate understanding of their business and its systems. To have been involved with Hotel Verde since the very beginning has allowed us to help create the most efficient, effective technology environment for them.”

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Modern Home That Features a Green Roof

This home was recently completed by the firm TheVeryMany, which is led by architect Marc Fornes, in Strasbourg, France. The main challenge was getting a large, luxury home into the rather small plot of available land, but they did it perfectly, with very few sacrifices, and some clever solutions.

The home is called MaHouse and measures 3,659 sq ft (340 sq m). Since the plot on which it was built is quite small, the home is made up of three volumes, which are stacked one on top of the other in an interesting, misaligned way. Each of these volumes also has a green roof. It took about three years to build this four-bedroom home.

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The master bedroom is located on the top floor, while the children’s bedrooms are on the second level, as is the playroom. The kitchen, living room and dining area are all located on the ground floor, while the home also has an underground garage. The different levels of the home are connected by a minimalistic staircase, which also features a slide for the kids to use to get from one level to the other. It’s a nice touch, but, frankly, I would want more side protection on this slide before I would let my children use it.

Squeezing such a large home into this tiny space meant that the neighboring houses are very close to MaHouse, so privacy was a concern. As was installing adequate glazing to let natural light enter the home. The architects solved this by installing Reglit Glass along the staircase, which offers privacy and also glows like a lantern in the dark.

This home is a great example of how clever design solutions can lead to being able to fit even very large structures into small plots.

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Source: jetsongreen


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Green shops make more money

A new study by the World Green Building Council shows retailers how to cash in on the clear link between sustainable store design and higher sales.

Retail shop owners who include sustainable features such as natural light, greenery, and ample ventilation into their stores can expect happier staff and customers, and also higher profits, a new report by the World Green Building Council (WGBC) has found.

Launched on Monday, the industry body’s report, titled, Health, Wellbeing and Productivity in Retail: The Impact of Green Buildings on People and Profit, discovered that while many retailers know that sustainable shop design and management can improve their business performance, they are slow to implement changes in their stores.

The report aimed to help retailers cash in on this missed opportunity by giving them a toolkit which they can use to quantify the value of sustainability on people’s well-being and ultimately, sales.

Terri Wills, chief executive officer, WGBC, said that drab “grey box” stores – simple rooms in enclosed malls – are a dying trend, and more companies are striving to create a better shopping environment for consumers.

The report, which was ledby the UK Green Building Council aims to “empower retailers to look within their own properties to understand and monetise how better, more sustainable physical environments can potentially drive profit”, she noted.

She added that in doing so, WGBC aims to “ultimately strengthen the business case for greener, healthier buildings”.

The report is part of WGBC’s “Better Places for People” campaign, an initiative which aims to create demand for sustainable buildings by highlighting how they improve people’s well-being and lives.

WGBC in its report noted that research has long shown that stores with more sustainable features such as greenery and natural ventilation perform better economically.

Back in 1993 for example, American retail giantWal-Mart developed a concept store in which only half of the store was day lit. It found that in those naturally lit areas, sales per square foot were significantly higher.

In 2002, the International Council of Shopping Centres found that lifestyle centres – that is, connected sets of uncovered stores with pedestrianised walkways – performed better economically than conventional malls.

To help retailers understand how these trends can boost their own performance and develop strategies to maximise sustainability and profits, the WGBC report presented a ‘Retail Metrics Framework’.

The framework lays out three sets of indicators that store owners should measure: environmental metrics such as lighting and indoor air quality; how employees and customers perceive the shop’s impact on well-being, and economic figures such as employee retention and absenteeism, as well as sales numbers.

Companies can use this framework in multiple ways, said WGBC. For example, they can identify stores which have undergone renovations and compare their financial results to understand the economic impact of refurbishment.

Or, a retail chain can tabulate the data for all its stores, and identify the correlations between shop performance, sustainability features, and customer experiences.

It is no accident that this framework begins and hinges upon better economic performance, because until that can be demonstrated, sustainability may be regarded by some as an add-on expense.

Health, Wellbeing and Productivity in Retail: The Impact of Green Buildings on People and Profit report, World Green Building Council

WGBC piloted these ideas with some retailers, who were members of the report’s task group, prior to the report launch, and found that the system helps companies uncover new, strategically useful data. Retailers in this task group included UK chains John Lewis, Marks & Spencer, and Australian supermarket Stockland.

WGBC said its retail framework also helps integrate sustainability into the overall business strategy by showing the clear links between sustainability and a store’s profitability.

Said WGBC in its report: “It is no accident that this framework begins and hinges upon better economic performance, because until that can be demonstrated, sustainability may be regarded by some as an add-on expense”.

Emerging technologies, such as environmental sensors, mobile applications, and even tracking cell-phone signals are some tools that retailers can use to calculate the metrics outlined in the framework, noted the report. It added that as these technologies evolve, the framework will only get more accurate.

John Alker, policy and campaign director, UK GBC, noted that this report should be a “wake-up call” for retailers, and those with a stake in the retail property sector.

“They are sitting on a potential gold-mine of data, which can help cement the business case for investing in healthy, greener stores,” he added.

Source: eco-business


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Optimising Daylight in South Africa: A case study

Light is of decisive importance in experiencing architecture. The same room can be made to give very different spatial impressions by a simple expedient of changing the size and locations of its openings. Moving a window from the middle of a wall to a corner will utterly transform the entire character of the room. To most people a good light means only much light. If we do not see a thing well enough we simply demand more light. And very often we find that it does not help because the quantity of light is not nearly as important as its quality. (Rasmussen, 1964)

At the moment lighting accounts for around 35% of the energy used within non-residential buildings and between 0% and 28%1 in residential buildings. Electricity usage (%) in the residential sector for high/ middle income residences consume typically 5% for fluorescent and 12% for incandescent types of lighting. (UNEP, 2009). Designers are encouraged to use natural daylight in their designs to reduce the energy used (SANS 204-2, 2008).

The use of daylight to supplement or as a substitute for electric light in the window zones of interiors with side windows or over the entire area of spaces with skylights can save lighting energy. This saving should be balanced against the energy required to compensate for heat gains and losses through the daylight openings. During times of low external temperatures more heating and during times of high external temperatures and sunshine more cooling of the interior will be required in order to maintain a constant internal air temperature. The use of daylight therefore will only be energy effective and cost-effective if the savings on lighting exceed the extra expenditure for climate control (SANS 10114-1, 2005)

Uses of Daylight

Screen Shot 2015-02-02 at 5.02.43 PM

Natural daylight is a very important and interesting source of lighting in buildings. Natural daylight can inter alia be used for functional1, decorative2 and artistic3 purposes. In the SANS 204-2 and 10114-1 norms the emphasis is mostly on functional uses. The light levels, power and energy usage for the building is determined in accordance with a lookup table 14 (SANS 204-2, 2008).This table describes the recommended light levels, power and energy for various classes of buildings. The light levels range from 50 lx for entertainment and public assembly to 700 lx for high risk industrial type of spaces.

The developments in electric lighting have not eliminated a widespread preference for daylight in buildings, wherever practicable. The reliance on daylight is greater in homes, offices, schools and patient areas in hospitals than in factories and shops.

The factors listed below will be different for different types of interior, different methods of daylight admission and for different climates (See Table 6.2). Recommendations regarding daylight should inter alia allow for the following factors (SANS 10114-1, 2005): Levels and uniformity. Daylight provides variability and, when it enters through side windows, creates a specific modeling and luminance distribution in the interior. It therefore contributes to visual satisfaction. The quantity of daylight is usually specified by the daylight factor, both with regard to illuminance and uniformity. In interiors with side windows, the available daylight decreases rapidly with distance from the windows. In many cases such as living rooms and small offices this non uniformity is acceptable and even appreciated. In other cases, supplementary electric lighting is required. Roof lights (skylights) can provide ample and highly uniform daylighting, but should be carefully designed to avoid solar overheating and glare.

• External view. Where natural light is used throughout the day for reasons of convenience and economy, an additional advantage is the view of the outside environment. However this is not always possible in large industrial or commercial buildings. The best position, shape and dimensions of the windows will depend on the nature of the outside environment. It also depends on the building design and will take into account architectural, lighting, visual, thermal and acoustic considerations.

Glare from the sun or sky. Daylight can produce sky glare and can adversely affect the comfort in the interior. Direct sunlight is desirable for various types of buildings, such as homes in moderate climates, but should generally be avoided in work areas. Means to avoid direct sun irradiation are appropriate orientation of windows and skylights, the use of various types of curtains or blinds and the use of louvres or screens. The latter are also effective in reducing sky glare and are particularly important on the upper floors of high-rise buildings where large parts of the sky might be visible. Small windows have an effect on the sky glare only to the extent that they prevent parts of bright skies or bright opposite facades or buildings from being seen. When appreciable areas of a bright sky remain in the field of view some glare such as discomfort5 glare or disability6 glare should be expected. Therefore, even with small glass areas, work areas directly facing windows should be avoided. If this is not possible, some means should be provided to reduce possible sky glare. Other techniques to reduce window glare are:

• The use of external or internal devices, such as louvres.
• Deep splayed reveals on the side of the windows, finished with a high reflectance surface and

with the same finish applied to any frames and glazing bars.
• The use of tinted low transmission glazing.
• Arranging for light in the interior to fall on the wall area adjacent to the windows, either from roof lights or from specially located luminaires.

Heat gains and losses. The heat gain through windows might require cooling of the interior during

the warm season, but might reduce heating costs during the cold season. However, heat losses through the window during the cold season can offset the savings and can increase heating costs. The use of daylight as an illuminant can save energy used for electric lighting, but this should be balanced against the energy required to compensate for the heat gains and heat losses through the glazing. Means to avoid excessive solar heat are:

  • Appropriate orientation of glazing.
  • Reduction of areas of glazing.
  • Use of an appropriate daylight system (Table 6.2)
  • Use of heat-reflecting or heat-absorbing glass or coated glass.

The International Energy Agency (IEA, 2000) recognizes a wide range of innovative daylight strategies and systems. Some are rarely used in South Africa. The IEA recognizes two basic types of daylight system i.e. daylighting systems with Shading and daylighting systems without shading. The latter type consists of four subdivisions:

• Diffuse light-guiding systems
• Direct light-guiding systems
• Light-scattering or diffusing Systems • Light transport systems

Gallery below provides some examples of the various types.

Luminance and iLLuminance

Luminance is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction. It describes the amount of light that passes through or is emitted from a particular area and falls within a given solid angle. The SI unit for luminance is candela per square metre (cd/ m2). Luminance is often used to characterize emission or reflection from flat diffuse surfaces. The luminance indicates how much luminous power will be detected by an eye looking at the surface from a particular angle of view. Luminance is thus an indicator of how bright the surface will appear. In this case, the solid angle of interest is the solid angle subtended by the eye’s pupil.

For a perfectly diffusing surface, the luminance can be calculated in accordance with the following formula (SANS 10114-1, 2005):

where

L is the luminance, candelas per square metre; E is the illuminance, in lux;
r is the reflection factor.

For example, if a matt surface that has a reflection factor of 0.5 is exposed to an illuminance of 200 lx, the luminance is

cd/m2

Illuminance is a photometric measure of the total luminous flux incident on a surface per unit area. It is a measure of the intensity of the incident light, wavelength-weighted by the luminosity function to correlate with the human brightness perception. Similarly, luminous emittance is the luminous flux per unit area emitted from a surface. Luminous emittance is also known as luminous exitance.

In the SI system these are measured in lux (lx). lluminance was formerly often called brightness, but this leads to confusion with other uses of the word. “Brightness” should never be used for quantitative description, but only for nonquantitative references to physiological sensations and perceptions of light.

4. Daylight factor
The daylight factor is the ratio of internal light level to external light level and is defined as:

Screen Shot 2015-02-02 at 5.13.50 PM

 

 

 

where:

Screen Shot 2015-02-02 at 5.13.57 PM

 

 

 

 

For example, if a matt surface that has a reflection factor of 0.5 is exposed to an illuminance of 200 lx, the luminance is

Screen Shot 2015-02-02 at 5.14.02 PM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Illuminance is a photometric measure of the total luminous flux incident on a surface per unit area. It is a measure of the intensity of the incident light, wavelength-weighted by the luminosity function to correlate with the human brightness perception. Similarly, luminous emittance is the luminous flux per unit area emitted from a surface. Luminous emittance is also known as luminous exitance.

In the SI system these are measured in lux (lx). lluminance was formerly often called brightness, but this leads to confusion with other uses of the word. “Brightness” should never be used for quantitative description, but only for nonquantitative references to physiological sensations and perceptions of light.

4. Daylight factor
The daylight factor is the ratio of internal light level to external light level and is defined as:

Screen Shot 2015-02-02 at 5.14.08 PM

 

 

 

 

 

where:

Screen Shot 2015-02-02 at 5.14.18 PM

There are basically three paths (daylight factor components) along which light can reach a point inside a room, i.e. through a glazed window, rooflight or aperture as follows:
• The sky component (SC) that is direct light from part of the sky or sun at the point considered.
• The externally reflected component (ERC) that is light reflected from an exterior surface and then

reaching the internal point measured.
• The internally reflected component (IRC) that is light entering through the window but reaching

the point only after reflection from an internal surface.

The sum of the three components gives the illuminance level in lux at the point measured. The daylight factor only gives the proportion of daylight from outside that reaches the interior of the building and does not indicate the absolute level of illumination that will occur.

To calculate daylight factors requires complex repetition of calculations. It is normally undertaken by a software product such as Radiance. This is a suite of tools for performing lighting simulation which includes a renderer as well as other tools for measuring the simulated light levels. It uses ray tracing to perform all lighting calculations. The design day used for daylight factors is based upon the standard Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) overcast sky for 21 September at 12h00 and where the ground ambient light level is 11921 lux. Since the CIE standard overcast sky assumes no orientation effects, the estimates of the daylight contribution can be wrong. To correct for this, orientation factors have been derived to be applied to the daylight factors. More recently the CIE has derived a standard based on the spatial distribution of daylight, i.e. the CIE Standard General Sky (CIE, 2002).

Rooms with a DF of 2% are considered daylit. However a room is only considered as well daylit when the DF is above 5%.

Screen Shot 2015-02-03 at 9.42.25 AM

Case study

The following is an example of how a designer might approach a design analysis to optimize daylight in a building. The first step is to determine the solar angles at different times of the year accurately. With the advent of Google Earth it has become much easier to determine these accurately. This is the basis for the calculation of solar angles.

Read the entire article in the Green Building Handbook Volume 4 on pg 114 here. Or sign-up to download the digital version of the handbooks here.


 

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